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Thursday, 30 June 2011

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy


Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland.
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Sustainable energy
Renewable energy
Anaerobic digestion · Hydroelectricity
Gasification of biomass · Geothermal
Solar · Tidal
Wave · Wind
Energy conservation
Cogeneration · Energy efficiency
Geothermal heat pump  · Green building
Passive Solar  · Microgeneration
Organic Rankine Cycle
Sustainable transport
Plug-in hybrids · Electric vehicles
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Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, from volcanic activity, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications.[1]
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,[2] but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.

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